The Dobraca house / Kragujevac – SERBIA / author Aleksandar Rudnik Milanovic

Underground residential architecture is neither a new concept nor is its use discontinued; it is noticed that today there is a large number of buildings belonging to a group of subterranean structures bearing different denominations. Traditionally, these structures were built, above all, in the cases where the level of energy consumption for their functioning is reduced to the minimum. Underground housing, began when natural holes and natural or artificial caves were used, or primitive artificial structures were created. Modern underground architecture is particularly developed in the field of housing. One of the main purposes of using this typological form of housing is the ability to save energy by using the earth as an insulator, as well as other passive systems, such as solar, geothermal or wind energy for generating all the clean energy needed for the functioning of the houses. In theory and practice, there are two main types of this specific architecture. The first type is an underground earth-sheltered home, built below the level of terrain or completely underground. These types of underground structures provide enough functional needs for living space through the atrium as a central outdoor courtyard. The second type is bermed earth-sheltered homes, which could be built above the terrain or partially buried in the grade, with earth covering one or more walls. In most cases, these structures have only one facade, with the earth that covers the other sides.